Ms O’Dea’s TY Home Ec. Page

4th Year Home Economics





Teacher: Ms O’Dea




Room: K4





Time:  Thursday periods 5 & 6 (11:35 – 12:55)





Name of Student:




Tutor Group:











*Note: it is not possible to know in advance when the Junior Certificate practical exams will be, so a class may be missed in the two weeks before / after the Easter holidays.




Combining Ingredients



All cakes are made by combining ingredients and there are four basic methods of combinations: melting, rubbing-in, creaming and whisking. Most recipes are variations of these.  


Melting Method


  • Gingerbread
  • Malt Loaf
  • Flapjacks


This method is used less often than the others as only a few recipes require it e.g. gingerbread. The dry ingredients such as flour are put into a bowl and the ingredients which melt are placed in a saucepan over the heat. The melted ingredients are then poured into the bowl with the dry ingredients and everything is mixed well together. Cakes cooked by this method are cooled in the tin. These cakes usually improve with keeping, develop a good flavour and become more moist. Many of these recipes use black treacle or golden syrup.


Rubbing-In Method


  • Shortcrust Pastry  
  • Scones
  • Fruit Crumble


This method is used for plain mixtures i.e. those which do not have a lot of fat  as recipes which use a lot would be too sticky to rub in. It is better to use block margarine in these cakes rather than soft margarine as it is less sticky. The flour is sieved into a bowl, followed by the fat which is cut into small pieces. The fat is then cut into small pieces and rubbed in with the tip of the fingers until the mixture has no lumps and looks like fine breadcrumbs. (It is important not to over-rub the fat as the mixture may become stuck together). The other dry ingredients are stirred in and then the liquids (eggs and milk) are added. Cakes made using this recipe will only last a few days because they contain so little fat. The more fat there is in a cake- the longer it will keep for.


Creaming Method


  • Chocolate Cake
  • Queen/Fairy Cakes


This method is used for richer cakes which have more fat, sugar and eggs e.g. Madeira Cakes. These are called ‘rich’ cakes and they keep for longer than plain cakes because of the extra fat. As there is quite a lot of fat it is too messy to rub it in and so the creaming method is used. There are 2 different creaming methods:


  1. All-in-one-Method


The flour is sieved into the bowl and then the other ingredients (margarine, eggs and sugar) are all added and beaten together with a wooden spoon/electric beater until the mixture is light coloured and fluffy.



  1. Traditional Method


Using this method the fat and sugar are creamed together until light and fluffy. The eggs are whisked and gradually beaten into the mixture before gently folding in the flour.


Whisking Method


  • Sponge Cake  
  • Swissroll
  • Flan



This method is used for fatless cakes. The eggs and sugar are whisked together with a hand or electric whisk until they are thick and creamy. You will know the mixture is ready when the beaker leaves a ‘figure-of-eight’ on the mixture. The flour is lastly folded in with a metal spoon using a gentle motion. As these cakes contain no fat, they soon become stale. They should be eaten within a day of being made.




Tea Scones


Ingredients:                            Equipment:


400g Self Raising Flour                   Sieve & Rolling Pin

50g Caster Sugar (optional)             Large & Small Bowl

100 g butter/ margarine                    Knife & Fork                                             

1 Large Egg                                      Pastry Brush & Wooden Spoon

A little milk                                      Baking & Cooling Tray

50g raisins (optional)                       Flour Dredger & Scone cutter




  1. Pre-heat oven to 220oC/ Gas 7.
  2. Sieve flour into mixing bowl.
  3. Rub in margarine, until it looks like fine breadcrumbs, then stir in sugar if using.
  4. Beat egg and milk in a bowl.
  5. Add to mixture (keeping back a little for glazing) and mix to a soft dough.
  6. Turn onto a floured board and knead lightly until smooth.
  7. Roll to a 1 cm thickness and cut into rounds with a small cutter.
  8. Place on a greased tray and brush with egg.
  9. Bake until golden for about 12-15 minutes.
  10. Cool on a wire tray.




Raspberry/ Strawberry Jam and Whipped Cream




  • Sultana Scones: Add 25g sultanas when adding sugar.
  • Cinnamon Scones: Add 1tsp cinnamon to flour before sieving. Add 25g sultanas, raisins or mixed fruit when adding sugar.
  • Cheese and Herb Scones: Omit sugar and add 25g grated cheddar cheese and 3 tblsp chopped fresh parsley or sage.
  • Brown / Wholemeal Scones: Use 100g brown / wholemeal flour.







Mixed Berry Smoothie


Ingredients:                                        Equipment:


200g mixed berries (frozen or fresh)             Liquidiser or blender

2 bananas                                                       Glass and straws

200 ml orange or apple juice                         




1.Combine all ingredients and blend.

2.Serve in chilled glasses with a frosted top.


































Queen/Fairy Cakes


Ingredients:                                        Equipment:


150g Self-Raising Flour                                 Bun and cooling tray

100g Margarine                                              Electric Mixer

100g Caster Sugar                                         Large and small bowl

2 Eggs                                                             Fork, dessertspoon, teaspoon

Few drops of vanilla essence (optional)         Sieve

Paper Cases (most important!)                       Spatula





  1. Preheat the oven to 190oC/ Gas Mark 5.
  2. Place the bun cases in the bun tray.
  3. Sieve the flour into a bowl.
  4. Add all other ingredients and beat well with an electric mixer until light and fluffy.
  5. Divide between the paper cases and bake for about 15-20 minutes until well risen, firm and golden brown.




  • Cherry Cakes: Add 50g cherries which have been washed, dried and chopped when adding in the flour.


  • Sultana Cakes: Add 50g sultanas and fold in with flour.


  • Chocolate Cakes: Replace 1 tblsp flour with 1 tblsp cocoa.












Quick Pizza


Ingredients:                                         Equipment:


Base:                                                               Large bowl

200g Plain Flour                                              Sieve

¼ tsp Salt                                                         Measuring Jug

1 tsp Baking Powder                                       2 Chopping boards

50g Margarine                                                 Knife

125 ml milk/water                                           Frying pan

Filling:                                                             Rolling pin

Olive oil                                                           Baking tray

1 onion                                                            Pizza cutter

1 tin Tomatoes                                                 Wooden spoon

Salt and Pepper                                                Cheese grater

100g Grated Cheese                                         Flour dredger

Tomato Puree

Pinch oregano/mixed herbs

50g Sliced Mushrooms

2 Rashers





  1. Preheat oven to 200oC/ Gas 6.
  2. Peel and slice the mushrooms and onions.
  3. Cut up and de-rind the rasher (separate board).   
  4. Heat oil in frying pan and fry rashers.
  5. Sauté onions and mushrooms for 5 minutes.
  6. Add tomatoes, herbs and seasoning.
  7. Simmer gently, while making dough.
  8. Sieve flour, salt and baking powder into a bowl.
  9. Rub in margarine with fingertips until it looks like fine breadcrumbs.
  10. Make a well in the centre of the flour mixture. Add milk and mix to a fairly stiff dough.  
  11. Turn onto lightly floured board and knead gently.
  12. Place on greased tin, sprinkle cheese over, then spoon tomato mixture over cheese- covering it completely.
  13. Bake in oven for about 30 minutes.  Serve in wedges with green salad.





Why do we need Protein?


  1. For the growth of our body cells e.g. blood, skin, muscle, bone.
  2. To repair the body when it is injured.
  3. To produce heat and energy for the body (this only happens however when the growth and repair work is completed).
  4. For the production of enzymes, hormones and other important body chemicals.  

Where can we find Protein?




These are mostly from animal sources- meat, fish, eggs, milk, cheese, yoghurt, soya beans.   





These are mostly from plant sources- pulses (peas and beans), cereal (wheat, oats, rice), bread, pasta, nuts.


Average protein content of some everyday foods (g per 100g)

White Bread  8.4 Cheddar Cheese 25.5
Weetabix 11.0 Eggs 12.5
Cornflakes  7.9 Baked Beans  5.3
Pasta, boiled  3.6 Roast Chicken 22.6
Milk  3.3 Lentils, boiled  7.6

How much Protein do we need?

Each person requires 1g of Protein daily for each kilogram of body weight.


An average 15 year old girl needs about 45g of protein per day and a 15 year old boy needs about 55g.

Spaghetti Bolognese


Ingredients:                                           Equipment:


3 tblsp Olive Oil (may not need)                      Chopping board

400g Minced Beef                                            Sharp Knives

1 large onion, finely chopped                           Saucepan and Frying pan

2 celery stalks, sliced                                       Garlic Crusher

100g mushrooms                                              Tablespoon, teaspoon

1 tblsp plain flour                                             Can opener

2 garlic cloves, crushed                                    Wooden spoon

2 tablespoons Tomato Puree                             Colander

1 tsp mixed herbs                                              Pot stand

400g Chopped Tomatoes (Tin)

Salt and Black Pepper

100-125g Spaghetti

Grated Parmesan (to garnish)





  1. Add beef to frying pan and start off on a low heat. Cook until brown,  increasing temperature as meat starts to cook.
  2. Peel and chop onion. Wash and chop celery. Peel and slice mushrooms.
  3. Add onion, mushrooms and celery and cook for 5 minutes.
  4. Peel and crush garlic.
  5. Add flour, garlic, tomato puree and cook, stirring for 1 minute.
  6. Add tomatoes, salt and pepper to taste and bring to the boil. Cook, stirring until mixture thickens.
  7. Lower heat and simmer gently for 10 minutes.
  8. Cook spaghetti in boiling salted water 8-10 minutes. Drain thoroughly.
  9. Return spaghetti to pan. Add a little oil and toss gently to coat.
  10. Serve by arranging spaghetti on plate, bolognese on top and finish by sprinkling grated parmesan.     







Apple Crumble




Ingredients:                           Equipment:



2 / 3 Cooking Apples                    Pie Dish (MUST BRING FROM HOME!)

30g Soft Brown Sugar                  Apple peeler and corer            

1 tsp Cinnamon                             Saucepan               

2tblsp Apple Juice                        Wooden Spoon               

10g Butter (5g for greasing)         Knife / Teaspoon

                                                     Sharp Knife and chopping board

Topping: 115g Butter                    Sieve

175g Plain Flour                            Mixing bowl

55g Porridge Oats

85g Soft Brown Sugar

Pinch of Salt






  1. Preheat the oven to 190oC/ Gas Mark 5. Grease the pie dish.
  2. Peel the apples, cut them into quarters and cut out the cores. Slice.
  3. Cook the apples, sugar, cinnamon, butter and apple juice gently in a saucepan until the apples are soft.
  4. Rub the butter and flour together in a mixing bowl before mixing in the oats, sugar and salt. Put the apple mixture in the dish.
  5. Spread the crumble on top and bake until golden brown.




    It can be served hot or cold with cream, yogurt or ice-cream.




  • Many different fruits can be used to make fruit crumble: 6 stalks of rhubarb, one tin of pears or three fresh pears, 200g blackberries or 200g gooseberries.
  • Individual Apple Crumble muffins could be made using the recipe above.







Vitamins are one of the micronutrients ( the other one being minerals). The word vitamin means ‘vital to life’ and although we only need them in small amounts if we do not have them over a long period of time, our health will be affected.


Vitamins can be classified as fat soluble or water soluble depending on whether they are found dissolved in fatty or watery foods.  Fat soluble vitamins are A, D, E and K while Water soluble Vitamins are B and C.


Vitamin a


  1. It is necessary for growth.
  2. It is necessary for healthy eyes.
  3. It is necessary for healthy skin and lining membranes such as those of mouth and breathing organs.



  1. Retarded Growth.
  2. Night Blindness.
  3. Dry lining Membranes.



Fish liver oils, liver, butter, margarine, milk, cheese, eggs, dark green vegetables (cabbage, watercress, spinach)


Vitamin d


  1. Formation of strong bones and teeth.  



  1. Rickets.



Sunshine, cod-liver oil, oily fish (tuna, sardines, salmon, mackerel, kippers), margarine, liver, cheese, eggs.






Vitamin E

Vitamin E is found in most foods and because it is needed in such small amounts there is rarely any shortage.


Vitamin K




  1. It is necessary for the clotting of blood.



Made in human intestines, vegetables and cereals.


Vitamin b

There are a number of different types of Vitamin B.



  1. It controls the release of energy from food. .
  2. It is necessary for the proper functioning and health of nerves.



  1. Beri-Beri which is a nerve disease.  
  2. Pellagra- a disease which causes the tongue and skin to become rough and sore.
  3. Tiredness and a feeling of being run down.



Nuts, pulse vegetables, cereals, yeast, bread, meat, fish, milk, cheese and eggs.


Vitamin c


  1. It is necessary for general health – particularly of skin, gums and blood vessels.  
  2. It is necessary for the absorption of Iron.  
  3. It is essential for the manufacture of connective tissue.  



  1. Delayed healing of wounds.  
  2. Scurvy  




Blackcurrants, citrus fruits, peppers, green vegetables.


Chicken / Vegetable Curry


Ingredients:                                        Equipment:


1 dsp Vegetable Oil                                               Chopping Board

½ Onion                                                                 Knife

1 dsp Curry Powder                                               Dessertspoon, teaspoon

1 dsp Flour                                                             Wooden Spoon

Salt and Pepper                                                       Measuring Jug

1 Stock Cube (280ml)                                             Saucepan

450g Vegetables                                                      Frying pan       

(Carrot, Mushrooms, Celery, Peppers)                   Vegetable peeler

1 tsp Brown Sugar + 1 tsp Lemon Juice

125g Brown rice

Chicken breast (optional)





  1. Prepare the mixture of vegetables-
  • Peel and slice the carrot into cubes.
  • Peel and slice the mushrooms into cubes.
  • Wash and slice the celery into cubes.
  • Place all vegetables into a saucepan.
  1. Add the brown sugar and lemon juice.
  2. Make 280ml of Stock in a jug. Add 200ml of stock to the mixture of vegetables and boil for 20 minutes.
  3. Heat the oil and fry the onion until it is soft.
  4. Stir in the curry powder, flour and the remainder of the stock.
  5. Bring to the boil. Add this to the mixed vegetables and season.
  6. Simmer for 10 minutes. Reduce heat and cook slowly for another 20 minutes. Cook the rice.
  7. Serve the rice on a heated plate and spoon curry mixture on top.








The food we eat is mostly made up of the macronutrients (protein, fats and carbohydrates) although it also contains other substances in small amounts- the micronutrients (vitamins and minerals). Although we only need minerals in small amounts if we do not have enough our health will be affected.


There are many different minerals but only the three considered most important to humans will be looked at here.




  1. Iron is necessary for the formation of haemoglobin- the substance in red blood cells which carries oxygen to parts of the body where it is needed. Oxygen is necessary for all cells and in turn for the body to work efficiently.  




  1. The lack of iron in the body is called Anaemia. The symptoms of anaemia include tiredness, weakness, dizziness, headaches, poor appetite and a feeling of being run down.


There are some groups of people who are most likely to suffer from a shortage of iron:

  • Those who have a high requirement of iron for growing body tissue e.g. small children and teenagers.
  • Those who loose a lot of blood e.g. women during menstruation, patients during surgery.
  • Those who do not absorb the iron in food into their body efficiently.




Meat, offal, sardines and wholemeal bread.


Required amount:


Females: 14.8mg per day


Males: 11.3mg per day









  1. It is necessary for the formation of strong, well-formed bones and teeth.
  2. It is necessary for the normal clotting of blood.  




  1. Rickets in children – a disease where children suffer from badly formed bones.
  2. Osteoporosis in adults- a condition in which the bones become brittle and easily broken.
  3. Poor quality teeth.  




Milk, cheese, yoghurt, eggs, green vegetables, bones of canned fish.


Required amount:


Females: 800mg per day

Males:   1000mg per day






  1. It helps teeth to resist decay by repairing tiny cracks in the teeth.




  1. Teeth which are more prone to decay.   




  1. Drinking water which has been fluoridated by the local authorities.
  2. Fluoride Toothpaste.








Vegetable Stirfry



Ingredients:                                          Equipment:


1 Onion                                                            Wok or frying pan

1 red Pepper                                                    Chopping board

1 yellow Pepper                                               Knife

1 Carrot                                                           Garlic crusher

25g Mushrooms                                              Saucepan

100g Broccoli                                                 Tablespoon, teaspoon

4 Spring Onions                                              Pot stand

125g brown rice                                              Wooden Spoon

2 tblsp Vegetable Oil

1 tblsp Soy sauce and 1 tsp Sesame oil ( or just use one)





  1. Boil water and put on rice on to cook (one saucepan should be enough between two tables).
  2. Peel and slice carrots into thin 4cm strips.
  3. Peel and finely slice the onion.
  4. Peel and crush 2 cloves of garlic.
  5. Wash the peppers before removing core and seeds. Slice into thin strips.
  6. Wash and break the broccoli into florets.
  7. Slice the spring onions.
  8. Heat the oil in a wok or large frying pan.
  9. Add the carrots to the hot oil, stir-fry for 3 minutes. Add onions and peppers and stir-fry for 1-2 minutes.
  10. Add the remaining vegetables i.e. mushrooms, spring onions and garlic and stir-fry for another 1-2 minutes.
  11. Add seasoning and sauces.
  12. When vegetables are cooked but still crisp serve at once on a hot plate on a bed of brown rice. Sprinkle freshly, chopped herbs on top.





Chocolate / Coffee Cake



Ingredients:                                         Equipment:


175g Margarine                                               2 cake tins and cooling tray

175g Brown Sugar                                          Greaseproof paper

3 tblsp cocoa/ coffee +                                    1 large and 2 small bowls

2 tblsp boiling water                                       Sieve

3 large Eggs                                                    Electric mixer          

175g self raising flour                                    Wooden spoon

                                                                       Palette knife, fork, tablespoon

Decoration:                                                     Spatula

150ml Whipped cream

125g plain chocolate

Glace cherries


75g butter

150g sieved icing sugar

1-2 tblsp hot water with 1-2 tblsp coffee / cocoa            




  1. Preheat oven to 180oC/Gas 4
  2. Grease and line the base of two cake tins.
  3. Place all the ingredients in a mixing bowl and beat with a wooden spoon or electric mixer until well mixed. Do not overbeat.
  4. Place half the mixture into each of the prepared tins.
  5. Bake for 25-35mins.
  6. Turn out and cool on a wire rack.
  7. Decorate either with cream or buttercream icing.










Mince Pies

Ingredients:                                                                        Equipment:

225g Plain Flour                                                     Large and small bowl
1 tablespoon Caster Sugar                                      Fork, tablespoon, teaspoon
25g Ground Almonds                                             Scone cutters
150g Butter (at room temperature)                         Baking and cooling tray
1 Egg                                                                       Flour dredger
Cold Water, if required                                           Rolling pin
454g / 1lb Jar Mincemeat

  1. Preheat oven to 200°C/ Gas 6.
  2. Put flour, sugar and ground almonds into a mixing bowl.
  3. Rub in butter until mixtures resembles breadcrumbs.
  4. Add egg and sufficient water to make into a dough.
  5. Lightly knead on a floured board.
  6. Cover with cling film and chill until used.
  7. Roll out pastry and cut out 12 rounds to fit mince pie tin. Then using a smaller cutter (or festive shape i.e. star / Christmas tree) cut out 12 lids for top of pies.
  8. Place a spoonful of mincemeat in centre of each round.
  9. Place lid on top.
  10. Bake in pre-heated oven for 15-20 minutes.
  11. Cool on a wire tray and dust with icing sugar before serving







Pineapple Upside-Down Cake




Ingredients:                                       Equipment:


Base:                                                              Measuring Jug


1 Small Tin Pineapple Rings                         Loaf tin / Sandwich tin                                                (drained and juice reserved )                          Greaseproof paper

25g Margarine                                                Spatula

25 g Brown Sugar                                          Tin opener

Cherries (optional)                                         Big and small bowl

                                                                      Fork, knife, dessertspoon

Topping:                                                         Electric mixer

                                                                       Cooling tray
75g Self Raising Flour
50g Margarine
50g Caster Sugar
1 Egg
3 Dessertspoons of the Pineapple Juice



  1. Pre-heat oven to 180°C
  2. Base line a 2lb Loaf tin or a 7″/18cms Sandwich Tin with greaseproof paper.
  3. Spread the paper with the margarine, bringing some up around the sides of the tin.
  4. Shake brown sugar over base, arrange pineapple rings over the sugar and place a cherry in the centre of each pineapple if used.
  5. Make the topping by putting the flour, margarine, sugar, egg and pineapple juice into a bowl.
  6. Beat until mixture is smooth, then gently spread over the pineapples.
  7. Bake in the pre-heated oven for about 30 minutes or until brown and “set” to the touch.
  8. Turn out onto serving dish and serve hot or cold with custard, cream or ice cream.


Crispy Vegetable Bake


Ingredients:                           Equipment:

Olive Oil                                                             Chopping Board

1 large onion                                                        Knife

1 pepper                                                               Frying Pan

2 florets of broccoli                                             Measuring Jug

2 / 3Mushrooms                                                  Tablespoon

1 clove garlic                                                       Wooden spoon x2

2 carrots / 2 parsnips or 1 of each                        Saucepan

1 parsnip                                                              Cheese grater

1 leek                                                                   Garlic crusher

500ml Milk                                                        Vegetable Peeler

25g Margarine / Butter                         

25g Flour                

125g Cheddar Cheese                              

Salt & Pepper & Nutmeg                              

4 tblsp wholemeal breadcrumbs                                      

OVENPROOF DISH ( MUST BRING FROM HOME!) & CUTLERY                                         

Chopped Parsley (optional)                               




  1. Preheat the oven to 200oC/ Gas Mark 6.
  2. Skin and chop the onion. Peel and slice the carrot. Skin and crush the garlic. Open, wash and slice the leek. Peel, slice and cut the parsnip into chunks.
  3. Break the broccoli into small florets and wash. Wash and deseed the pepper. Cut in half and then lengthwise and crossways.
  4. Heat the olive oil and then fry the vegetables until soft.
  5. Melt the margarine  / butter in a saucepan over a moderate heat. Take the pan off the heat and stir in the flour (this makes the roux).
  6. Place the saucepan back on the heat and SLOWLY blend in the milk. Season with salt, pepper and nutmeg. Add in 75g of grated cheese.
  7. Place vegetables in a large baking dish and season. Pour white sauce over vegetables. Top with breadcrumbs and remaining cheese. Bake in oven until top is brown and crusty.  
  8. Garnish with strips of red pepper and parsley.





A soup is a liquid food made from stock with vegetables/meat/fish.


Uses of Soup:

Soup is useful in the diet

  • To provide nourishment
  • To provide warmth in the wintertime
  • To add variety to the diet
  • As it is suitable for vegetarians



Classification of Soups:


Soups can be classified into thick and thin.



Thick Soups:


Puree Soups– this is thickened by sieving or blending its ingredients. Most vegetable soups e.g. mushroom, tomato are purees. Starchy thickeners such as flour may be used.


Thickened Soups- these soups are not sieved. The meat/vegetables are finely chopped before cooking and the soup is thickened towards the end with blended flour, a roux or pasta. Examples include mixed vegetable soup, minestrone and chowder.






Thin Soups:


Clear Soups- are thin and transparent and are based on a rich stock e.g. Consommé.


Broths- are clear soups containing finely chopped meat and vegetables. A wholegrain cereal such as barley or rice is used to thicken the broth e.g. Chicken Broth.


Characteristics of a good soup:


  1. Well-flavoured with the main ingredient dominating.
  2. Well-seasoned using salt, pepper and herbs.
  3. A good colour.
  4. Free from grease.
  5. Piping hot or cold.
  6. Correct consistency- thick or thin but not cold.


When making soup:


A heavy saucepan should be used.

Slice ingredients.

Only use good stock.

Use cold water.

Proportions must be correct.






Vegetable Soup


Ingredients:                                         Equipment:


500g mixed vegetables e.g.                             Chopping board

celery, carrot, leek etc                                     Vegetable knives and peeler

1 medium onion                                               Large saucepan

25g butter                                                         Wooden spoon

25g flour                                                           Measuring jug

1 vegetable stock cube (make 1L stock)          Blender

Salt and pepper                                                


To garnish: (not necessary to bring)

100ml cream / Parsley / Grated cheese





  1. Prepare vegetables: wash, peel and dice.
  2. Melt butter; sauté vegetables on a medium heat for 5 minutes.
  3. Add flour; cook on a low heat for one minute, stirring all the time.
  4. Stir in the stock gradually; add herbs and seasoning.
  5. Bring to the boil, cover and simmer gently for about 30 minutes.
  6. Taste and correct seasoning; stir in cream; reheat slightly.





















Ingredients:                                    Equipment:


Cake:                                                      Baking and cooling tray

4 Eggs                                                     Greaseproof paper

100g Castor Sugar                                  Sieve

100g Plain Flour                                     Electric mixer

+ ¼ tsp Baking Powder                          Large and small bowl

Filling:                                                   Tablespoon, teaspoon

3 tblsp Jam                                              Palette knife / spatula

100ml whipped cream                            Dry t-towel

Icing sugar to dredge




  1. Preheat oven to 220oC/ Gas Mark 7.
  2. Grease and line a swissroll tin.
  3. Whisk the eggs and sugar together until light and fluffy.
  4. Sieve half the flour over the mixture. Fold in very lightly with a metal spoon.
  5. Add the remaining flour in the same way.
  6. Pour the mixture into the prepared tin and bake for 7-9 minutes until brown and well risen.
  7. Have a clean tea-towel ready sprinkled with sieved icing sugar. Turn the cake quickly out onto the towel, trim off the crusty edges and roll up with the greaseproof paper.
  8. Allow to cool on a wire tray.
  9. FILLING- Whip the cream and heat the jam for ease of spreading.
  10. When cool, unroll and spread with filling. Re-roll.















Why do we need Fat?


  • Fat is a good source of energy. One gram of fat provides 9 kcal of energy compared to protein and carbohydrates which 4 kcal per gram.
  • It forms a layer around some of the body organs e.g. kidneys thus protecting them.
  • It can prevent the loss of body heat by forming an insulating layer under the skin.
  • It gives a nice flavour to food.
  • It provides a good source of the fat-soluble vitamins- A, D, E, K.
  • It provides essential fatty acids i.e. nutrients which the body needs but cannot make.


Where can we find Fats?


Sources of fat are divided into saturated and unsaturated.


Saturated Fats usually come from animal foods and tend to be solid at normal temperature. It is a high consumption of saturated fats that leads to the clogging of blood vessels and heart disease.


Butter, margarine, suet, lard, dripping, milk, cheese, cream and egg yolk.


Unsaturated Fats are mainly from plants and fish and are usually soft or oily at normal temperatures.


Margarines e.g. Flora, all vegetables oils except coconut and palm oil, oily fish (salmon, trout)


Average fat content of some everyday foods (g per 100g)

Whole Milk  3.9 Semi-Skimmed Milk  1.6
Butter/Margarine 82.0 Low-fat Spread 40.0
Cheddar Cheese 34.4 Cottage Cheese  3.9
Cod in batter, fried 10.3 Steamed Haddock  0.8



Macaroni Cheese


Ingredients:                                     Equipment:


150g Macaroni (or any pasta)                   2 saucepans

25g Margarine                                           2 wooden spoons

25g Flour                                                   Measuring Jug

400ml Milk (bring some extra!)                Colander

150g Grated cheese (75g + 75g)                Grater

Pinch of salt                                               Cooling tray

Greased oven proof dish (from home)





  1. Place the pasta on to cook in a saucepan of boiling, salted water.
  2. Grate the cheese into 2 separate piles.
  3. Melt the butter in a saucepan. Take the pan off the heat and stir in the flour (this makes the roux).
  4. Place the saucepan back on the heat and SLOWLY blend in the milk. Add in 75g of grated cheese.
  5. Drain pasta and place into greased dish. Pour the cheese sauce evenly over the pasta. Sprinkle grated cheese on top.
  6. Brown under grill and serve immediately.




  • Use diced, cooked potatoes instead of macaroni
  • Fry some mushrooms and then stir into the sauce when made
  • Sprinkle some pine nuts on top before browning








Sweet and Sour Chicken


Ingredients:                                           Equipment:


Olive oil                                                             Frying pan

1 onion                                                               Wooden spoon

1 clove garlic                                                      2 chopping boards

1 green pepper                                                    2 knives

1 carrot                                                               Tin opener

2 Chicken breasts                                               Measuring jug

1 can Pineapple pieces                                        Teaspoon, tablespoon

2 level tsp Sugar                                                  Vegetable peeler

2 tblsp Vinegar

1 tblsp Soy Sauce

1 level tblsp Tomato Puree

1 level tblsp Cornflour

125g brown rice

Salt and Pepper





  1. Heat the oil in a large pan.
  2. Cut the chicken into small pieces, add to the pan and fry over a fairly high heat for 5 minutes stirring occasionally.
  3. Peel and chop onions, peel and crush garlic, wash, de-seed and slice peppers, peel and dice carrots.  Remove chicken, sauté all vegetables for a few minutes, return chicken.
  4. Drain the juice from the pineapple pieces into a measuring jug and add enough water to make 250ml. Add the pineapple pieces to the chicken and vegetables.
  5. Add all other ingredients to the jug and mix until smooth. Pour into the pan and bring to the boil, stirring until the sauce thickens.
  6. Simmer for 10 minutes with the lid on, stirring occasionally.
  7. During this time boil a saucepan of water before adding rice to cook.
  8. Serve by placing the rice on a plate and arranging the chicken on top.




Chocolate Brownies




Ingredients:                                              Equipment:


200g Self-Raising Flour                                       2 large and 1 small bowl

¼ tsp Salt                                                              Sieve

80g Cocoa                                                            Tablespoon, teaspoon, fork

200g Butter                                                           Baking and cooling tray

200g Soft-brown Sugar                                         Electric mixer

4 Eggs                                                                   Spatula

A little milk





  1. Preheat oven to 190oC/Gas 5
  2. Grease an oblong tin 28mm x 18mm.
  3. Sieve together flour, salt, cocoa.
  4. In another bowl beat together butter and sugar until light and creamy.
  5. Add eggs a little at a time, beating well after each addition.
  6. Fold sieved ingredients into mixture with milk. Mix well. Turn into prepared tin.
  7. Bake in oven for about 15 minutes. Allow to cool in tin.
  8. Cut into 15 squares.


















Ingredients for pastry making:


  1. Flour – plain is always used as self-raising flour makes pastry soft and doughy. Good pastry can be made with ½ white and ½ wholemeal.


  1. Fat- lard makes pastry crisp while margarine gives a good colour and flavour. A mixture of both gives the best results.


  1. Water- similar to bread-making you must be careful when adding water

TOO MUCH- makes the mixture hard to roll and the result will be hard and tough

TOO LITTLE- will make the pastry break easily and so make it difficult to roll out


When making pastry there are a few simple rules which if followed can give great results.



The lightness of pastry depends on the amount of air incorporated. It is important to trap as much air as possible while making it. When the pastry goes into a hot oven the air will expand and rise making the pastry light. Air can be incorporated by (1) sieving the flour and (2) raising your hands well above the bowl when rubbing-in the margarine.



Everything used when making pastry should be kept cool i.e. the ingredients, utensils, your hands and the kitchen.



Your hands should be used as little as possible. Cut margarine with a knife and use a knife to mix with the water. When turning or lifting the pastry, use a knife and a rolling pin.



Even the minimum of rubbing-in and rolling will stretch the pastry so it is important to let it rest in the fridge for at least 15 minutes. This will reduce the possibility of the pastry shrinking when in the oven.



Pastry should be baked in a hot oven (to burst the starch grains of the flour so that the fat is absorbed). If the oven is too cool- the fat will melt and run out of the pastry before the starch grains burst making it greasy and hard. Reduce the heat of the oven after 15 minutes to allow the filling to cook without the pastry burning.



Apple Pie



Ingredients:                                          Equipment:


200g Plain Flour                                               Sieve

100g Margarine                                                Large and small bowls

Pinch of Salt                                                     Flour dredger + jug

3 Medium Cooking Apples                              Rolling pin

50g Sugar                                                         Teaspoon, knife

Cloves or cinnamon                                         Apple corer and peeler

Egg or milk, to glaze                                        Dinner plate (can bring your own)




  1. Preheat oven to 220oC/ Gas 7.
  2. Make pastry and chill in refrigerator. Sieve flour and salt into a mixing bowl. Rub in margarine using fingertips. SLOWLY add water until it holds together. Knead together lightly until smooth, then roll on a lightly floured surface to required shape.
  3. Peel, core and slice apples.
  4. Divide pastry in two- one piece slightly bigger than the other. Use the bigger piece to line the plate. Roll out second half to size of plate, fold and place on plate. Place in refrigerator to cool.
  5. Place sliced apples on pastry; sprinkle with sugar and cloves. Brush edge of pastry with water, cover with remaining pastry and press well to seal. Flake and decorate edges; cut 2 slits on top or prod with fork to release steam.
  6. Brush with beaten egg and place plate on a tin (to prevent spills in oven).
  7. Bake for 10 minutes, then reduce to moderate (190oC/Gas 5) until cooked (approx 25 mins or more).
  8. Serve with whipped cream, ice cream or custard.









Quiche Lorraine



Ingredients:                         Equipment:


170g Flour                                                        Bowls- large and small                       

75g Margarine                                                  Sieve

Pinch Salt                                                         Knife, fork   

Olive oil                                                           Cheese Grater

Cold Water                                                       Measuring Jug

4 rashers, chopped                                            Frying Pan  

1 onion                                                             Wooden Spoon

1 red pepper                                                     Chopping Board + knife

75g Cheddar Cheese                                          Quiche dish

2 Eggs                           

250ml Milk                                                                                              

Salt and freshly ground Pepper

1 Tomato

Chopped Parsley





  1. Preheat oven to 190oC/ Gas Mark 4.
  2. Make pastry- sieve flour and salt into bowl. Rub in margarine until it looks like fine breadcrumbs. Add water gradually to make a stiff dough. Chill.
  3. Chop up rashers into small pieces. Grate cheese.
  4. Peel and chop onion, wash, slice and de-seed peppers.
  5. Fry rashers until crisp and then add in vegetables.
  6. Roll out pastry to line a 20cm greased flan/pie dish.
  7. Put bacon, vegetables and half of the cheese into the pastry case and spread evenly over base.
  8. Beat eggs and add milk and seasoning. Pour into case.
  1.  Top with remaining cheese.
  2. Bake in oven for 30 minutes until set and golden brown. Add sliced tomato with a few minutes remaining. Sprinkle with parsley.  










Why do we need carbohydrates?


  • They supply heat and energy.  
  • Any excess carbohydrate is stored as fat – forms an insulating layer.
  • Fibre can help the movement of food through the intestine.


Where can we find Carbohydrates?




Sugar, honey, fruit, cakes, sweets, biscuits, milk.   




Cereals, pasta, flour, bread, potatoes, root and pulse vegetables.  




Whole cereals, oatmeal, bran, wholemeal bread, fruit and vegetables (esp skins)


Although Fibre is not absorbed by the body it has an important role to play in the prevention of constipation, diverticular disease and cancer of the bowel.


How much carbohydrate do we need?


Sugar is almost (99.9%) pure Carbohydrate i.e. it supplies no other nutrients. It is therefore better to get your Carbohydrate intake from starchy foods e.g. cereals and pasta as they will also provide vitamins, minerals, protein and fibre.


It is recommended that 50% of our daily diet comes from Carbohydrates.






Bacon and Mushroom Risotto



Ingredients:                                           Equipment:


1 Onion                                                             Chopping Board x 2

2 sticks of celery                                               Knife x 2

100g Mushrooms                                              Measuring jug

½ red + ½ green pepper                                    Frying pan

1 vegetable stock cube                                      Wooden spoon

2 Rashers                                                          Pot stand

125g Rice                                                          Dessertspoon

1 tblsp Olive Oil

Salt and black pepper                    




  1. Chop and de-rind the bacon
  2. Peel and finely chop the onion.
  3. Wash and chop the celery.
  4. Peel and slice the mushrooms.
  5. Wash, deseed and slice the peppers.
  6. Heat the oil in a large frying pan. Fry the chopped and de-rinded bacon and then fry the onions until soft.
  7. Add the celery, peppers and mushrooms and cook for 2-3 minutes.
  8. Boil kettle for stock. Add the rice and cook for another 2-3 minutes.
  9. Make 1 L of stock before adding slowly, stirring all the time.
  10. Cook for 20 minutes, until the rice is soft.
  11. Serve on a plate with a sprig of parsley on top.









Tomato & Basil Risotto




Ingredients:                            Equipment:



1 tblsp Olive Oil                            Frying pan

1 onion                                          Chopping board

2 garlic cloves                               Sharp knife

125g Risotto rice                          Garlic crusher

125ml Vegetable Stock                Measuring Jug

250g Passata                                 Spoon for stirring stock

250g Cherry tomatoes                  Grater

50g Mozzarella

25g Parmesan

Basil leaves, roughly chopped

To add some colour 2 /3 sticks of celery or spring onions if you wish



  1. Peel and finely chop the onion. Peel and crush the garlic.
  2. Boil water and make stock in a measuring jug.
  3. Wash and slice the cherry tomatoes.
  4. Chop the mozzarella into chunks. Roughly chop the basil leaves.
  5. Grate the parmesan.
  6. Heat the oil in a frying pan. Add the onion and garlic and cook for 2-3 mins until softened. (Add other vegetables here as well if using).
  7. Add the rice and cook, stirring for one minute.
  8. Pour in the stock, a bit at a time, allowing each bit to be absorbed before adding more. Add the passata, cherry tomatoes and mozzarella with the final bit of stock.
  9. When the stock is absorbed stir in some of the parmesan and basil leaves.


Remove from heat and serve with remaining parmesan and basil leaves.




Chocolate Chip Muffins




Ingredients:                            Equipment:



200g Self Raising Flour                Sieve

150g Caster Sugar                         2 Large & 1 Small Bowl

150 g butter/ margarine                 Electric Mixer   

50g Cocoa                                     Fork      

3 Eggs                                           Wooden Spoon

¼ pt milk                                       Muffin & Cooling Tray

1bag chocolate chips                     Spatula

Muffin cases


Icing Sugar (optional)          




  1. Preheat oven to 180°C.
  2. Cream the margarine and sugar together in a bowl using an electric mixer.
  3. In a separate bowl, crack and beat the eggs. Check for shell.
  4. Add the eggs and milk slowly to the mixture beating well after each addition.
  5. Sieve the cocoa, flour and baking powder together into a third bowl. Fold into wet mixture along with chocolate chips.  
  6. Spoon into the muffin tin , making each case about two thirds full.
  7. Bake for 12-15 minutes until cooked through.
  8. Cool on a wire tray.




Sieve over some Icing Sugar.







No-bake chocolate cake

Ingredients:                                                                      Equipment:

100g digestive biscuits                                              Blender

100g cream crackers                                                  Tablespoon

25g castor sugar                                                         Electric mixer

3 tablespoons Golden Syrup                                        Wooden spoon

25g Cocoa                                                                     Sandwich tin

75g Butter   

100g milk chocolate

1 tblsp instant coffee

2 tsp Milk




  1. Crush digestive biscuits. Grease a sandwich tin.
  2. Cream the butter and sugar until light and fluffy.
  3. Add the syrup and cocoa and beat well. Work in the biscuit crumbs.
  4. Leave overnight in a cool place – pressed well down with a plate.
  5. To make icing: melt chocolate in a bowl of water but don’t let steam in, otherwise it will curdle.
  6. Add in the coffee and beat well.  
  7. Spread over the top of the cake and allow to set in the fridge.
  8. Cut the cake in slices while still in the tin.  
















Ingredients:                                   Equipment:


200g Flour                                               Large and small bowl

1/8 tsp Salt                                               Sieve

¼ tsp Breadsoda                                      Teaspoon, tablespoon, knife

1 tsp ground Ginger                                 Sieve

50g Sultanas                                             Wooden spoon

75g Margarine                                          Saucepan

75g Brown Sugar                                     Baking tin

1 tblsp Treacle                                          Cooling tray

1 tblsp Golden Syrup (USE EITHER /  OR , DON’T BUY BOTH)

1 egg

A little Milk

Icing Sugar (for decoration)




  1. Preheat oven to 190oC/ Gas Mark 5.  
  2. Grease loaf tin or square cake tin.
  3. Sieve flour, salt, bread soda and ginger into a bowl. Add in the sultanas.
  4. Melt the margarine, treacle, brown sugar and golden syrup over a low heat.
  5. Pour the liquid into the centre of the dry ingredients. Add enough milk and egg until it has a soft, dropping consistency.
  6. Pour into tin and bake in oven for 35-40 minutes.
  7. Cool in tin.
  8. Sprinkle with icing sugar before cutting into 12 squares.




100g stewed apple can be added in with the egg for extra flavour. This step may result in you needing less milk to get the correct consistency.











  1. List four different techniques for making cakes.


                 (a)                                                                      (b)


 (c)                                                                     (d)


  1. (a) Which method does not use any fat?



(b) What benefit does fat give to cakes?




  1. (a) Explain the steps in baking a cake using the melting method



           (b) How long do these cakes stay fresh for?



           (c) List 2 recipes which use this method?



  1. (a) Explain the steps in baking a cake using the rubbing-in method



           (b) How long do these cakes stay fresh for?



           (c) List 2 recipes which use this method?


  1. (a) Explain the steps in baking a cake using the creaming method



           (b) How long do these cakes stay fresh for?



           (c) List 2 recipes which use this method?




  1. (a) Explain the steps in baking a cake using the whisking method



           (b) How long do these cakes stay fresh for?



           (c) List 2 recipes which use this method?




  1. Which method do you think is the most complicated? You must explain your answer fully.






Fibre is very important in order to have a healthy, balanced diet. Using the Internet, information leaflets, textbooks and your teacher research fibre under the following headings.



  • What is the function of fibre
  • What are the best sources of fibre
  • What is the RDA for fibre
  • List 6 recipes which are a healthy source of fibre



When you have completed your research design a leaflet which the Department of Health could use to encourage teenagers (i.e. you!) to understand more about and eat more fibre.


Use the space below to record your findings on fibre.



  1. Why do we need fat?




  1. List 5 everyday foods that are a good source of fat.



3.______________________________  4. ________________________

  1. ______________________________


  1. Explain what saturated fats are and give examples of foods in which they are found.




  1. Explain what unsaturated fats are and give examples of foods in which they are found.



5.What are the dangers of eating too much fat?






  1. Give four suggestions for cutting down on the amount of fat we eat.







  1. Heart Disease is becoming a huge problem in Britain. Using different research methods (e.g. books, magazines, the Internet) research the problem of heart disease and write a paragraph on it in the space below.